WOODEN HOUSE – HOW TO BUILD IT BEING FIREPROOF?
If you have decided to build a private house – especially, if in that predominantly is used wooden material, there is raised a question – is it fireproof enough and what kind of fireproof actions should plan do timely for maximum protection of a wooden house from the risk of fire.
For a wooden house to be fireproof, it is significant to use and install modern solutions during the projecting of the house, which is specially intended for improving the fireproof of a wooden carcass house.
Without a doubt, wood, from which basically the wooden house is built, is a material, about which fireproof you have to think twice. But for the wooden house being fireproof, the proper engineering design of a wooden building is important. For building and equipping a wooden house, you have to choose carefully systems of electricity, gas, and heating – fireplaces, boilers, ovens, etc., to keep up with those systems have been installed properly to all the fireproof rules. Of course, installing the oven, fireplace, boiler etc., have to choose the proper place in the house, in turn, walls have to cover with waterproof decoration materials.
Why there is a myth, that carcass houses have low fireproof?
Living carcass houses are considered as non-fireproof because they are built from the light wooden structure, which is widely known as burning material. In fact, carcass houses cannot be compared with other wooden houses, because only the carcass is from the wood, which is built-in and protected with a non-fire burning insulation. All the wooden carcass elements are impregnated with a fireproof remedy – substances, which trustworthy serve for wood fireproof. After a proper impregnation wooden materials are durable to the fire even when they are prolonged exposure to fire. The most significant in case of fire in any house is to get as much as possible time to get out of the dimension and get maximum time to do necessary fireproof events.
For the wooden house – constructions should be worked out against fire
On the other hand, if you build a wooden private house yourself from the timber you own, make sure that it meets the fire safety requirements of the European Union, as such timber is especially protected against the risk of fire. If you decide to make beams in a wooden house, they should be processed with a special remedy, which in case of fire will delay the flame.
To protect the house against ignition, it is significant to process each structure with the special remedy. This anti-ignition remedy or flame retardants affect the early stages of the fire. These inorganic origin products, which delay fire and heating, consist special salt and colors, which impregnate wood, the wood’s ability to flame is reduced, or the wood is coated with a layer of a certain thickness of swellable paint, which blows into heat and creates a foam protective layer. In the case of prolonged fire, the boards treated with swellable paint, will not corrode or flare. In the event of the fire, such treatment prevents or delays wood burning, thus reducing fire spreading. It is not toxic, do not contain polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE). Also, the processing is not reducing strength of the wood.
Wooden house guard – automatic fire alarm system – alarm
Installing of a system such like this in the house is relatively expensive, but it is very useful. Praxis shows, that, if a system such like this is installed, it timely warns about an ignition, that’s why the scourge will be much less. If the fire alarm system – the alarm allows – it can be installed in a wooden house in zones where there are electrical wiring, as it has been observed that the most commonly ignition occurs in these areas. Of course, in every private house, especially, in a wooden house, there should be fireproof equipment, for example, fire extinguisher in order to immediately ignite the flame in case of fire. We must admit, that fireproof is human action, not the house.
For ignition, there are three elements needed – fuel (here – wood), an oxidizer (oxygen) and a source of ignition (match, candle, damage to the wiring, etc.).Until the first two elements are everywhere, they will not burn without the ignition source. That’s why, if we talk about fireproof, then it can influence prudent or, on the contrary, reckless behavior. As an evidence of the good wooden material is, that timber hasn’t been absolutely dry at any of live cycles – it takes and gives the humidity all the time. That’s why during the firewood burns evenly, with a predictive speed. In comparison to the metal construction: it heats very fast, deforms already when it’s 300-400 degrees and collapse. Wooden constructions are able to withstand higher temperature. In the event of a fire, the temperature rises to a thousand and more degrees, but within the wooden structure is not more than a hundred degrees, while the inside moisture remains. So, in the event of an accident, a wooden house will be both easier to rescue and more secure for evacuation. In turn, independently from that, from which material the house has been built, metal structure or wooden carcass, it is significant to identify the compliance of the objects, furniture and appliances in the house with fire safety regulations, for example, a fire may be caused by a sofa placed too close to the fireplace or a light bulb too close to the curtains that has nothing to do with what kind of house it is. Fire risks need to be weighed up, rethinking how to live and what to do.
Wooden house – equally to the concrete house in case of fireproof
Praxis has proved – wooden carcass building in case of fireproof are equal to other materials buildings. In comparison to metal constructions, wooden partition construction save their integrity for a long time, even with a straight contact to fire. In turn, metal constructions relatively fast lose their partition capacity.
Professionally projected and built wooden carcass house in case of fireproof is as secure, like brick or blockhouse. It is wrong to think, that wood is easily flammable and unsafe, it is fireproof. Building fire safety is much more complicated than categorization – highly flammable or fireproof materials. Wooden house, which is built, using checked and licensed materials in accordance with building rules, do not raise a higher level of a fire risk than the other materials building. Wooden structures in comparison to metal constructions withstand a high fire temperature for a longer time period.
Popular beliefs about the insecurity of a wooden building are caused by information in the media about fires in wooden houses. For a clearer option, that most of the fires stand out in those wooden buildings that are not built with the intention of fire safety – in summer cottages, at the underground type home.
Fireproof rules and wooden houses
In the event of a fire, the salvation of the people is largely dependent on the speed of the firefighters, the fire resistance of the structures. It is therefore essential for buildings, including wooden frame houses, to be equipped with a fire alarm.
Tests have proved, that wooden carcass private houses save their partitions abilities at least for 90 minutes since the fire starts. It seems initially unbelievable that wood bulkheads can withstand fire flames for 90 minutes, that temperatures can reach up to 1,000 ° C while preventing the spread of fire and adjacent spaces and maintaining the stability of the walls. The wood contains about 15% water. Therefore, before igniting the wood, water is first evaporated. Thus, the burning process in the wood takes place more slowly, maintaining the stability of the structure for longer.
Building a wooden carcass house, you have to pay attention to these significant fireproof rules:
- Before starting to build a house, all the materials should be processed with a special remedy, which will save from the burn – it is important to buy a high qualaty remedy. Make sure the proper effect of the protective device can be achieved by spraying with a remedy a small wooden board and putting it in the oven;
- Installing in the house the electricity, you have to follow, that all the wiring would be in a special protective cover;
- When conducting heat insulation work, only non-combustible materials should be selected;
- Creating a firewall;
- Use of plasterboard in building a wooden carcass house;
- Installation of automatic sprayers;
- Fire and smoke detectors and evacuation plans
- In areas where there is an increased risk, for example, where a boiler or stove will be placed, it is necessary to create a finish from refractory materials.
Since May 1, 2017, new amendment came into force in a building normative LBN 201 – 15 “The fireproof of buildings”, which now lets to build the six-floor high wooden house (earlier three) of 18 meters (earlier 8) with a sign, that all the extra requirements are met. In the amendments, there is taken into an account the experience of the countries such as Germany, Sweden, Finland in case of building houses such like these. In these countries, both public and living houses are built higher than eight meters, do not restricting the high of the building, but fixing other solutions, which don’t let, for example, ignition and provides timely and safe evacuation. These buildings also make extensive use of the principle of encapsulation, providing wooden partition construction protecting against ignition and cooing for a while: impregnation wood with fire retardants or covering the surface of wood construction with non-combustible materials.
Natural origin – fireproof setting
When thinking about a fireproof house, it is significant to pay any attention to the origin of the interior furniture, because synthetic materials with a lower fire durability, they burn or get wet. For the comparison there is a video, imitating two separately, similarly built dimensions, which are decorated with the furniture of the different origin. On the left side – natural materials (wool, wood, silk, porcelain etc.), on the right side – subjects produced from an oil basis. The rate, intensity, and degree of contamination of the flame in the synthetic environment are significantly higher.
Ability to burn off the heating insulation material
As in constructions, used heating insulation materials each are with their own ignition degree and durability. Indirect contact with fire each material behaves differently. That is why fireproof and house in case of general protection this is a significant ratio. Although each type of heat insulation material has different characteristics and fire resistance, the construction of a private house has its own application function. Compelling different materials to the same fire load, the best result shows airkrete, eco wool, and stone wool. When thinking about fireproof in your house, it is proper to think not only about financial profit but also about fireproof building heating resolutions.
The experimental video, take a look:
Choosing an insulation material requires a responsible approach. Fireproof of building materials is fixed in accordance with the standard GOST 30244. The best solution for any house heating insulation is with a fireproof class N/G – which means – nonignitable. Heating insulation, which is traditionally used for carcass house insulation, is – mineral base wool. It is very durable to high temperatures and is able to endure temperatures to 1000 ° C without melting. Mineral base wool is fireproof insulation with an ignition class N/G (non-ignitable). Another heating insulation element, which is popular, is polystyrene (EPS) and extruded polystyrene foam (Epps), but, in comparison to the mineral wool, it is fireproof class PPP T2-T3 and T4. Moreover, it is not preferable to combine them with wooden constructions. Another significant limitation of the polystyrene is the release of toxic substances at high temperatures.
Extra fireproof of the house
Using of materials with a low ignition degree and observing of standards will help effectively protect the house from fire. Fire safety methods such as smoke detectors, fire extinguishers in the house, home fire insurance, additional emergency exits from the house should not be neglected. The greatest source of fire is the use of improper fire indoors, in particular, using inappropriately using ovens and boilers. Be careful and once again attentive, observe fire safety regulations and teach your children! Take care of yourself!